Haemorrhoids is the illness infecting blood lumps, often complicated by rectal bleeding.

The blood lumps are called the haemorrhoidal changes above the level of dentate line


The main reasons of the disease:

-low-residue diet

– intensive pressure of lower sphincter muscle

– excessive pressure during defecation.

– disorders in the content of supporting tissues


Haemorrhoids staging:

Stage I:           lumps get convex to the light of the canal, do not fall out of rectum

Stage II:         Lumps fall out of rectum during defecation and withdraw on their own into the              light of rectal canal

Stage III:        lumps, which can be withdrawn into the rectal canal only using a finger

Stage IV:        outer lumps, which cannot be withdrawn by any mean into the rectal canal


Clinical symptoms:

1.Rectal bleeding

2. Lump falling out of rectum

3. Itching and pain around the anus


Illnesses wrongly taken as haemorrhoids:

1. Anal fissure

2. Rectal abscess

3. Anal fistula

4. Bowen’s disease ( anus itching)

5. Paget’s disease (Condyloma)





Sclerotherapy of haemorrhoids I and II stage


Conservative options:


1. Surgery using Milligan- Morgan’s haemorrhoidestomy

2. Surgery using Ferguson’s method

3. Surgery using Longo or Stram

4. Ligation using Barron’s method ( called rubber band ligation)

5. Sclerotherapy: injecting obliterating measure beneath the mucous tissue under the control of working anoscope. The method does not require hospitalisation.